Decarbonising Transport in India: The Role of CAUSIS

Decarbonising transport in India is a complicated yet critical stage in the country’s pursuit of Net Zero.

Transport was responsible for a quarter of Global CO2 emissions in 2018 [1] and is attribut-able to 13% of India’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) production. With current emission levels reaching triple that of 1990, it is time for change.

The Impact of Road Transport on Carbon Emissions in India

The urbanisation of India’s population has resulted in the rapid growth of transportation demands. 2020 saw annual passenger kilometres increase to 3,833 billion from the 1,700 billion kilometres travelled in 2005. As the population continues to grow, these demands will increase along with the associated environmental effects of increased carbon emissions.

“Our country is urbanising very fast, which will throw huge challenges in providing various kinds of infrastructure, especially mobility. Our strategies must be in tune with our requirements when our population doubles.”

D.S. Mishra., Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs

India produced approximately 4.5 million tonnes of carbon emissions via traditional fossil fuel powered road-based vehicles in 2021. This figure is estimated to exceed 7 million tonnes without significant intervention by 2030. Further studies suggest that the 2021 figure may increase by 3-5-fold before 2050.

To put these figures into context, the carbon emissions created by road transport in India are comparable to the total CO2 emissions of The Bahamas, and by 2050 Indian road transport alone may contribute to emission levels exceeding the gross CO2 levels across all sectors in Bolivia.

There has been an awareness of the correlation between increased harmful emissions and climate change for several decades.

“Immediate and coordinated actions to limit and adapt to human-caused climate change are needed to protect human and ecological health, economic well-being, and global security.”

AGU Position Statement on Climate Change

When we consider the results of a 2019 study by S. Erdoğan, D. Ç Yıldırım and AGedikli, [2] the situation becomes even more harrowing.

“Immediate and coordinated actions to limit and adapt to human-caused climate change are needed to protect human and ecological health, economic well-being, and global security.”

Now is the time for change on a global scale and a giant step forward is decarbonising transport in India.

How Significant is Decarbonising Transport in India?

The transport sector in India is a significant contributor to domestic and global GHG emissions. Decarbonising transport in India is an important step forward in achieving the country’s short- and long-term climate goals.

Decarbonisation is the process of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from human activity. The overall objective is eliminating GHG emissions, involving a paradigm shift towards renewable energy sources.

The ground-breaking 2015 Paris Agreement was adopted by all member countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), setting global parameters for reducing fossil fuel usage and CO2 emissions with a 2030 checkpoint and culminating in net carbon neutrality by 2050.

How can Decarbonisation Change the World?

The scientific consensus suggests that full decarbonisation of our energy systems is the only solution for global climate stabilisation. The goal of keeping mean global warming beneath a 2° threshold is considered the answer to the existential threat of climate change.

However, recent statistical modelling has revealed that current global pledges are not meeting the demands of the 2015 agreement. The Indian government has noted this and developed strategic and data-driven policies toward decarbonising transport.

How do you Decarbonise Transport?

Adopting the three pillars of decarbonisation is the key to changing traditional transport. Firstly, the electrification of vehicles. Secondly, the wholesale change of electricity to renewable sources, and thirdly developing policies that ensure transport systems are more efficient and effective. Encouraging car buyers to commit to Electric Vehicles (EVs) is another critical step toward decarbonising transport.

The adoption of EV technology has gained increased momentum recently. It appears that India is on the cusp of a full-blown EV revolution.

What Initiatives are in Place?

The government launched the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles (FAME) in 2015 under the National Electric Mobility Mission. The scheme initially offered Indian residents financial support to purchase EVs until 2019.

The incentivisation of EV and Hybrid alternatives resulted in over 313,000 registered vehicles in 2021 (increasing from 156,000 in the 2019/20 financial year). Even more impressive was the 100,000 sales recorded in the first two months of 2022.

Phase two (FAME II) finances charging infrastructure and provides a three-year subsidy programme for the development of mass transit.

Mass transit has been an integral part of life for Indian people for decades, with many entirely dependent on the ageing and heavily polluting fleet of vehicles to deliver them to work or perform everyday tasks such as shopping and visiting family. Phase 2 of FAME supports developing a robust EV public transport system, including the rollout of 7000 E-Buses and over 20,000 2-,3-, and 4-wheeler passenger cars across India.

Crucially the Ministry of Heavy Industries also recently announced a commitment towards a further 2,877 charging stations across 68 cities, enhancing the infrastructure to a level that encourages further growth.

Who Launched Decarbonisation of Transport in India?

The Decarbonising Transport in Emerging Economies (DTEE) project for India was launched in 2020 by The International Transport Forum (ITF) and NITI Aayog, the National Institute for Transforming India.

Following FAME, the unique five-year project was developed to assist the development of low emission transport via precise modelling tools and policy scenarios.

What Changes are Required to the Existing Infrastructure?

The benefits of improved policies and switching to EV technology are undeniable. However, true decarbonisation of transport in India is reliant on other factors.

More than 65% of the proposals stipulated in the Paris Agreement regarding mitigating transport emissions focused on improved technology across many platforms. Unfortunately, there has undoubtedly been a narrowed vision toward simply getting more EVs on the road. Although this is a positive start, it is not enough, and a more holistic approach must be implemented.

EV technology-centric policies are not the absolute solution to decarbonising traffic in India. The focus must also turn to how the vehicles are charged.

India’s power generation profile has not improved in the past two decades. Energy derived from burning coal increased its market share from 69% to 76% between 2000 and 2020.

A recent article [3] suggested that the current electrical mix in India enables a new EV to obtain a net reduction in GHG emissions of just 5% compared to standard petrol or diesel vehicles.

How do you Decarbonise the Grid?

There is no one size fits all solution, unfortunately. Renewable energy sources are the key to reducing carbon emissions per unit of electricity produced. However, an action plan must be tailored to the individual situation.

In India, it is fair to say that one blanket statement rings true. Traditional coal-derived energy must be replaced by renewable sources such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, and waste to energy.

A 62% reduction in the carbon intensity of the grid would immediately transfer to a 50% reduction in the net GHG emissions of an EV.

The government must turn to innovative companies who are revolutionising renewable energy sources and battery technology if they are to utilise the benefits of EVs truly.


CAUSIS are globally redefining how cities combat rising GHG emissions caused by outdated transportation networks. Their transformative EV fleet and net zero emission technology are changing the future of global mass transit. The company don’t simply manufacture electric vehicles; they invest in emerging economies by developing world-class industry and innovative R&D centres for EVs and core components within the country.

CAUSIS are an integral part of the Indian FAME II rollout, providing a considerable boost with the recent signing of an MoU between the company and the Maharashtra Government. The agreement established an investment of 2,823 crore for supplying EV components and developing a manufacturing facility in Talegaon.

CAUSIS EV Technology

CAUSIS create bespoke ecosystems which provide a ground-up solution for EV technology. The heart of CAUSIS is their in-country manufacturing plants capable of producing a range of EVs and components. This process is essential to preventing unnecessary carbon emissions by transporting parts and vehicles.

Every production stage is powered by renewable sources, from parts manufacturing to the completed product.

CAUSIS Renewable Energy Production

EVs aren’t truly emission-free unless renewable energy is at the heart of the power source. CAUSIS are a global leader in cutting-edge renewable energy tech. Their solar, wind and waste-to-energy parks deliver to local power grids, and directly power EV charging stations, providing an inclusive net zero emission solution.

CAUSIS generates an equal or greater amount of renewable energy for every kilowatt of electricity consumed by EVs. Other companies may promise Net-Zero; CAUSIS deliver.


[1] IEA, “CO2 emissions from fuel combustion: Overview 2020,” IEA, Paris, 2020.

[2] Econometrics Letters Volume (6), 1, 2019, June The Relationship Between CO2 Emissions and Health Indicators: The Case of Turkey Seyfettin Erdoğan 1 Durmuş Çağrı Yıldırım 2 Ayfer Gedikli3

[3] Abdul-Manan, A.F.N., Gordillo Zavaleta, V., Agarwal, A.K. et al. Electrifying passenger road transport in India requires near-term electricity grid decarbonisation. Nat Commun13, 2095 (2022).

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